The latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. “Global Plant Stem Cell Market for Cosmetics Market – Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 – 2022,” the plant stem cell market for cosmetics was valued at USD 1,668.8 Mn in 2015, and is expected to reach USD 4,830.8 Mn by 2022, expanding at a CAGR of 15.9% from 2016 to 2022.
Browse the full report Plant Stem Cell Market for Cosmetics – Growth, Share, Opportunities, Competitive Analysis, and Forecast, 2016 – 2022 at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/plant-stem-cell-market-for-cosmetics
Research and development
Traditionally, plant stem cells were thought to only exist in SAM and RAM and studies were conducted based on this assumption. However, recent studies have indicated that (pro)cambium also serves as a niche for plant stem cells: “Procambium cells fulfill the criteria for being stem cells since they have the capacity for long-term self-renewal and being able to differentiate into one or more specialized cell types.
Plant cells are cultured to acquire plant useful compounds. However, cell cultures are often hindered by various factors especially if cell culture continues long-term. However, strong vitality and structural characteristics of plant stem cell overcome previous drawbacks to plant cell culture. Thus plant stem cell culture is the most ideal and productive method of cell culture and phytochemical production as cells are successfully mass cultured while maintaining quality.
Stem cell factor
Stem cell factor (also known as SCF, KIT-ligand, KL, or steel factor) is a cytokine that binds to the c-KIT receptor (CD117). SCF can exist both as a transmembrane protein and a soluble protein. This cytokine plays an important role in hematopoiesis (formation of blood cells), spermatogenesis, and melanogenesis.
The gene encoding stem cell factor (SCF) is found on the Sl locus in mice and on chromosome 12q22-12q24 in humans. The soluble and transmembrane forms of the protein are formed by alternative splicing of the same RNA transcript,
Figure 1: Alternative splicing of the same RNA transcript produces soluble and transmembrane forms of stem cell factor (SCF).
The soluble form of SCF contains a proteolytic cleavage site in exon 6. Cleavage at this site allows the extracellular portion of the protein to be released. The transmembrane form of SCF is formed by alternative splicing that excludes exon 6 (Figure 1). Both forms of SCF bind to c-KIT and are biologically active.
Soluble and transmembrane SCF is produced by fibroblasts and endothelial cells. Soluble SCF has a molecular weight of 18,5 kDa and forms a dimer. It is detected in normal human blood serum at 3.3 ng/mL.
Role in development
SCF plays an important role in the hematopoiesis during embryonic development. Sites where hematopoiesis takes place, such as the fetal liver and bone marrow, all express SCF. Mice that do not express SCF die in utero from severe anemia. Mice that do not express the receptor for SCF (c-KIT) also die from anemia. SCF may serve as guidance cues that direct hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to their stem cell niche (the microenvironment in which a stem cell resides), and it plays an important role in HSC maintenance. Non-lethal point mutants on the c-KIT receptor can cause anemia, decreased fertility, and decreased pigmentation.
During development, the presence of the SCF also plays an important role in the localization of melanocytes, cells that produce melanin and control pigmentation. In melanogenesis, melanoblasts migrate from the neural crest to their appropriate locations in the epidermis. Melanoblasts express the KIT receptor, and it is believed that SCF guides these cells to their terminal locations. SCF also regulates survival and proliferation of fully differentiated melanocytes in adults.
In spermatogenesis, c-KIT is expressed in primordial germ cells, spermatogonia, and in primordial oocytes. It is also expressed in the primordial germ cells of females. SCF is expressed along the pathways that the germ cells use to reach their terminal destination in the body. It is also expressed in the final destinations for these cells. Like for melanoblasts, this helps guide the cells to their appropriate locations in the body.
Role in hematopoiesis
SCF plays a role in the regulation of HSCs in the stem cell niche in the bone marrow. SCF has been shown to increase the survival of HSCs in vitro and contributes to the self-renewal and maintenance of HSCs in-vivo. HSCs at all stages of development express the same levels of the receptor for SCF (c-KIT). The stromal cells that surround HSCs are a component of the stem cell niche, and they release a number of ligands, including SCF.
Figure 2: A diagram of a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) inside its niche. It is adjacent to stromal cells that secrete ligands, such as stem cell factor (SCF).
In the bone marrow, HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells are adjacent to stromal cells, such as fibroblasts and osteoblasts (Figure 2). These HSCs remain in the niche by adhering to ECM proteins and to the stromal cells themselves. SCF has been shown to increase adhesion and thus may play a large role in ensuring that HSCs remain in the niche.
A small percentage of HSCs regularly leave the bone marrow to enter circulation and then return to their niche in the bone marrow. It is believed that concentration gradients of SCF, along with the chemokine SDF-1, allow HSCs to find their way back to the niche.
In adult mice, the injection of the ACK2 anti-KIT antibody, which binds to the c-Kit receptor and inactivates it, leads to severe problems in hematopoiesis. It causes a significant decrease in the number of HSC and other hematopoietic progenitor cells in the bone marrow. This suggests that SCF and c-Kit plays an important role in hematopoietic function in adulthood. SCF also increases the survival of various hematopoietic progenitor cells, such as megakaryocyte progenitors, in vitro. In addition, it works with other cytokines to support the colony growth of BFU-E, CFU-GM, and CFU-GEMM4. Hematopoietic progenitor cells have also been shown to migrate towards a higher concentration gradient of SCF in vitro, which suggests that SCF is involved in chemotaxis for these cells.
Fetal HSCs are more sensitive to SCF than HSCs from adults. In fact, fetal HSCs in cell culture are 6 times more sensitive to SCF than adult HSCs based on the concentration that allows maximum survival.
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