According to the latest market report published by Credence Research, Inc. “Hepatitis B Vaccines Market – Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 – 2025” the global hepatitis B vaccines market was valued at US$ 1.39 Bn in 2016, and is expected to reach US$ 1.89 Bn by 2025, expanding at a CAGR of 3.5% from 2017 to 2025.
Browse the full report Hepatitis B Vaccines Market – Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2017 – 2025 report at http://www.credenceresearch.com/report/hepatitis-b-vaccine-market
- Hepatitis B vaccination, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, and the combination of hepatitis B vaccine plus hepatitis B immunoglobulin, all are considered as preventive for babies born to mothers infected with HBV. The combination is superior for protecting these infants. The vaccine during pregnancy is not considered to be valuable in protecting babies of the infected mothers. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin before birth has not been well studied. In the United States vaccination is recommended for nearly all babies at birth. Many countries now routinely vaccinate infants against hepatitis B. In countries with high rates of hepatitis B infection, vaccination of newborns has not only reduced the risk of infection but has also led to marked reduction in liver cancer. This was reported in Taiwan where the implementation of a nationwide hepatitis B vaccination program in 1984 was associated with a decline in the incidence of childhood hepatocellular carcinoma.In the UK, the vaccine is offered to MSM, usually as part of a sexual health check-up. A similar situation is in operation in Ireland.
In many areas, vaccination against hepatitis B is also required for all health-care and laboratory staff. Both types of the vaccine, the plasma-derived vaccine (PDV) and recombinant vaccine (RV), seems to be able to elicit similar protective anti-HBs levels.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have issued recommendations for vaccination against hepatitis B among patients with diabetes mellitus. The World Health Organization recommends a pentavalent vaccine, combining vaccines against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenza type B with the vaccine against hepatitis B. There is not yet sufficient evidence on how effective this pentavalent vaccine is in relation to the individual vaccines.
Following the primary course of 3 vaccinations, a blood test may be taken after an interval of 1–4 months to establish if there has been an adequate response, which is defined as an anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-Hbs) antibody level above 100 mIU/ml. Such a full response occurs in about 85–90% of individuals.
An antibody level between 10 and 100 mIU/ml is considered a poor response, and these people should receive a single booster vaccination at this time, but do not need further retesting.
People who fail to respond (anti-Hbs antibody level below 10 mIU/ml) should be tested to exclude current or past Hepatitis B infection, and given a repeat course of 3 vaccinations, followed by further retesting 1–4 months after the second course. Those who still do not respond to the second course of vaccination may respond to an intradermal administration or to a high dose vaccine or to a double dose of a combined hepatitis A and B vaccine. Those who still fail to respond will require hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) if later exposed to the hepatitis B virus.
Poor responses are mostly associated with being over the age of 40 years, obesity, and smoking, and also in alcoholics, especially if with the advanced liver disease. Patients who are immunosuppressed or on renal dialysis may respond less well and require larger or more frequent doses of vaccine. At least one study suggests that hepatitis B vaccination is less effective in patients with HIV.
Duration of protection
It is now believed that the hepatitis B vaccine provides indefinite protection. However, it was previously believed and suggested that the vaccination would only provide effective cover of between five and seven years, but subsequently it has been appreciated that long-term immunity derives from immunological memory which outlasts the loss of antibody levels and hence subsequent testing and administration of booster doses is not required in successfully vaccinated immunocompetent individuals. Hence with the passage of time and longer experience, protection has been shown for at least 25 years in those who showed an adequate initial response to the primary course of vaccinations, and UK guidelines now suggest that for initial responders who require ongoing protection, such as for healthcare workers, only a single booster is advocated at 5 years.
Serious side effects from the hepatitis B vaccine are very uncommon. Pain may occur at the site of injection. It is safe for use during pregnancy or while breastfeeding. It has not been linked to Guillain–Barré syndrome.
Several studies have looked for an association between recombinant hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) and multiple sclerosis (MS) in adults. Most studies do not support a causal relationship between hepatitis B vaccination and demyelinating diseases such as MS. A 2004 study reported a significant increase in risk within 3 years of vaccination. Some of these studies were criticized for methodological problems.This controversy created public misgivings about HB vaccination, and hepatitis B vaccination in children remained low in several countries. A 2006 study concluded that evidence did not support an association between HB vaccination and sudden infant death syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, or multiple sclerosis. A 2007 study found that the vaccination does not seem to increase the risk of a first episode of MS in childhood.
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